Magma flowed into an exploratory geothermal well at 2.1 km depth being drilled in the Krafla central volcano in Iceland, creating a unique opportunity to study rhyolite magma in situ in a basaltic environment. The quenched magma is a partly vesicular, sparsely phyric, glass containing ∼1.8% of dissolved volatiles. Based on calculated H2O-CO2 saturation pressures, it degassed at a pressure intermediate between hydrostatic and lithostatic, and geothermometry indicates that the crystals in the melt formed at ∼900 °C. The glass shows no signs of hydrothermal alteration, but its hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios are much lower than those of typical mantle-derived magmas, indicating that this rhyolite originated by anhydrous mantle-derived magma assimilating partially melted hydrothermally altered basalts.
- Received 18 May 2010.
- Revision received 6 October 2010.
- Accepted 7 October 2010.
- © 2011 Geological Society of America